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International Journalism
Geneva Conventions
War Journalism Resources
Fact Sheet on Foreign Press Credentials

International Journalism Committee Chair

Ricardo Sandoval
Assistant City Editor
Sacramento Bee
Bio (click to expand) picture Ricardo Sandoval is Assistant City Editor at the Sacramento Bee newspaper. He supervises the paper’s environment, science and regional development teams of reporters. Before joining The Bee, Sandoval was a foreign correspondent, based in Mexico City, for the Dallas Morning News and Knight Ridder Newspapers. Sandoval was born in Mexico and raised in San Diego, California. He graduated with a journalism degree from Humboldt State University in Northern California. His career has spanned three decades and has included award-winning coverage of California agriculture, immigration, the savings and loan scandal and the deregulation of public utility companies. His list of awards includes the Overseas Press Club, the InterAmerican Press Club, the Gerald Loeb prize for business journalism and two honors from the Northern California chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists. Sandoval co-authored — with his wife, journalist Susan Ferriss — the biography “The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement” published in 1997 by Harcourt.

Ronnie Lovler, vice chair
Bio (click to expand) picture Ronnie Lovler is associate director of the Center for Integration and Improvement of Journalism at San Francisco State University. She is also senior writer for the nonprofit, and its public-interest news service, “News You Might Have Missed”. In addition to serving as international committee chair, Ronnie is a member of the executive board of the northern California chapter of SPJ. Ronnie taught journalism at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida before moving to San Francisco.

Ronnie’s journalism career spans several decades. She served as bureau chief and correspondent for CNN in Latin America for almost 10 years. During her time at CNN, she reported from every country in Latin America. She also worked for CBS News, The Weather Channel and The Associated Press, as well as The San Juan Star in San Juan, Puerto Rico. She was part of a team of observers headed by President Jimmy Carter monitoring electoral processes in Nicaragua (2001) and Venezuela (2004). During the 2005 U.S. hurricane season, Ms. Lovler worked with the American Red Cross as a volunteer crisis communicator and public information officer. She received her undergraduate degree from Ohio State University and her graduate degree in communications at the University of Florida.

Home > International Journalism > Reference Guide to the Geneva Conventions > Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977

Reference Guide to the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977

Geneva Conventions:
A Reference Guide

About the Guide
Alphabetical Index
Conventions Texts
     I | II | III | IV | PI | PII

Author's Note
Order a Copy

Image of original document of the first Geneva Convention from 1864 courtesy Kevin Quinn, Ohio, US; licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution license

There are four Geneva Conventions, signed August 12, 1949, and the two additional Protocols of June 8, 1977. These treaties are all fully indexed on this site.

In addition, there are many other international treaties which govern the conduct of war or establish human rights standards (see more treaties) which are not indexed here.

Convention I
For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Sets forth the protections for members of the armed forces who become wounded or sick. Full text

Convention II
For the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Extends protections to wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of naval forces. Full text

Convention III
Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva. Lists the rights of prisoners of war. Full text

Convention IV
Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva. Deals with the protection of the civilian population in times of war. Full text

Protocol I
Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Extends protections to victims of wars against racist regimes and wars of self determination. Full text

Protocol II
Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Proection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Extends protections to victims of internal conflicts in which an armed opposition controls enough territory to enable them to carry out sustained military operations. Full text

More Treaties
A number of other treaties have been signed, covering such issues as human rights, the use of particular weapons, and genocide. They include:

Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 1954
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 1965
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966
Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity of 1968.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 1979
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects. Geneva of 1980.
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984
Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989
— Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction of 1993
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction of 1997

Copyright © 2003 Maria Trombly. All rights reserved.


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